Rapid growth followed, and in 1690 the company set up a new factory further up the Hugli river, on a site that became Calcutta (now Kolkata). Programme Director, Comrades, Brothers and Sisters, The effects of colonialism past and present are visible all over Africa. They built forts along the coastline of Africa and Asia to protect their trade and did not try to control land in the interior. Between 1652 and the ending of the slave trade in 1807, about 60 000 slaves were imported into the Colony. Zanzibar was the first of these cities to be attacked in 1503. Christian evangelists were intimately involved in the colonial process in southern Africa. The Dutch forced the Portuguese out of India in the seventeenth century. In some cases, as people sought protection from the violence and warfare that went with the slave trade, large centralised states came into being. Source: dlynnwaldron.com. For centuries Arabs had traded with African kingdoms such as Great Zimbabwe and Mwanamutapa in order to supply Arabia, the Persian Gulf, India and even China with African ivory and gold. There have been several theories regarding the actual nature of life for the African people of the time, but these tend to vary from one extreme to the other; usually seeing only … He reached Mossel Bay in 1488 and on his way back to Portugal saw the Cape peninsular for the first time and named it the 'Cape of Storms' because of the bad weather the ships experienced there. History is always a contested terrain, but in South African society, largely shaped as it has been by a rapacious European settler colonialism and by a particularly predatory form of mining capital, conflicts over the past have, for at least two centuries, often been fierce. Of course, not all societies were equally transformed. From 1828 onwards the British introduced a number of administrative changes, known collectively as “the Revolution in Government”. Two minor rebellions of slaves in 1808 and 1825, in which a number of white settlers were killed, made the continued use of slave labour even less appealing. This brought the Dutch into conflict with the powerful Cochoqua chief, Gonnema, who refused to trade with the VOC. Prior to this time, world superpowers such as Portugal, France, and Britain had already set up colonies in Africa. The powerful Ottoman Empire blocked European access to markets in the East. Most of these slaves were originally captured by the Portuguese in present-day Angola. Therefore, slaves in the Cape were strictly controlled, and according to law, slaves could be severely punished for acts such as running away or failing to obey their owners’ orders. The children of these relationships formed part of what is known today as the Cape Coloured community. Colonialism in Africa affected many different spheres of the African culture and way of life. “Homophobic Language and Linguistic Resistance in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.” In Gender and Language in Sub-Saharan Africa: Tradition, Struggle, and Change, edited by Atanga, Lilian Lem, Sibonile Edith Ellece, Lia Litosseliti, and Jane Sunderland. # #! Over the past 500 years there have been different phases of colonisation. With colonialism, which began in South Africa in 1652, came the Slavery and Forced Labour Model. Colonialism in its raw nature was to ensure that the colonialists had vast economic superiority over the Africans. In some areas the expansion inevitably led to conflict as the newcomers came up against settled communities; in others the … It is a well-known fact that most Africa … In the African case, however, this heterogeneity You have already heard that conquistadors often fought among themselves. They brought with them cannons, mastiff dogs and sixteen horses. European travels to South Africa The Portuguese navigator Bartholomeu Dias is the first European travelling round the southern tip of Africa. Instead, she complained that she was beaten without doing anything wrong. Even with slavery, the Dutch did not have sufficient labour power to provide for their ships. Foreign ships on their way to the Americas from Madagascar also sold slaves at the Cape. In 1657, some Company officials were released from their contracts and were allocated land along the Liesbeeck River. Well-established gold and ivory trade network existed between African kingdoms in the interior and cities on the east coast of Africa. Between 1720 and 1790, slave numbers increased from 2 500 to 14 500. Almost from the start, slaves began to runaway, because of ill treatment, overwork and the natural desire to live as a free person. The Portuguese settlers on these islands used slaves bought from the Kongo traders to work on these plantations. The king was eager to make use of Portuguese teachers and craftsmen to train his people. From within the walls of the Castle, the VOC administered and governed the expanding colony. The fall of Tenochtitlán marked the end of the Aztec civilisation, which had existed for centuries. In 1519 the Spanish conquistador, Herman Cortés, led an expedition into central Mexico in search of land and gold. King John II of Portugal was so pleased when he heard the news that he renamed it the 'Cape of Good Hope'. These companies were given charters to trade by the governments of their countries. Europeans used spices such as salt, nutmeg and cloves to preserve their meat, as they did not have refrigerators to keep meat fresh. This was the maroon community of Hangklip. It is these missionaries who prepared the ground for later waves of colonial agents such as Cecil John Rhodes in Southern Africa. This was the original model of colonialism brought by the Dutch in 1652, and subsequently exported from the Western Cape to the Afrikaner Republics of the Orange Free State and the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek (SAHO, s.a.). Colonial contact was not simply a matter of Europeans imposing themselves upon African societies. As the boundaries of the Cape Colony expanded beyond the immediate vicinity of Table Bay, slaves were put to work on the wine and wheat farms of the south-western Cape. The spread of Christianity throughout the world was made possible by missionary activities. In other words, the Atlantic slave trade could not have taken place without the cooperation, or complicity, of many Africans. After the conquest of the Inca Empire, a Spanish force moved southward to found the city of Santiago in 1541. In the years 1884 and 1885, the Berlin Conference formalized European colonization of Africa. The maroon community at Hangklip was never able to cut itself off from the rest of colonial society and for this reason they were vulnerable. The city was bombarded with canon fire from the ships of Portuguese captain, Ruy Lourenço Ravasco. As the demand for slaves increased in Brazil, the São Tomé traders found a better supply of slaves further south near Luanda and Benguela. The emperor, Aurangzeb, was a harsh ruler who did not tolerate the Hindu population and often destroyed their temples. Certain colonies were acquired for their strategic importance. You learnt about the wealthy and powerful, The Colonising Camera photographs in the making of Namibian History, Grade 10 - Topic 1: The world around 1600. Increased wealth resulted in greater military and political power. Disease and forced labour drastically reduced the population of Central America. Slaves were allowed to make legal marriages after 1824. The arrival by ox-cart of British explorer, David Livingstone (1813 – 1873), Oswell and party at Lake Ngami. The trans-Saharan trade routes between Songhay and the North African traders provided Europe with gold coins used to trade spices, silks and other luxuries from India. The major European colonizers in SEA included Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, Britain, and France. Britain dominated trade in India after the collapse of the Mogul empire. This meant that no more slaves (from any destination) could be sent to work in the Cape. Better treatment of slaves was due to the fact that slaves were no longer easily available and therefore more expensive. However, to say that Reijnier lacked power is not to say that he was absolutely powerless. The Spanish built a line of forts to defend their settlements against continuous Araucanian attacks and raids. This control included various functions of government such as making laws, issuing currency, negotiating treaties, waging war and administering justice. They did eliminate Black cultures. The negative effects of colonialism or colonisation are similar the world over and not limited to Africa only. They did not displace or kill indigenous societies; instead they made use of their labour. This was the original model of colonialism brought by the Dutch in 1652, and subsequently exported from the Western Cape to the Afrikaner Republics of the Orange Free State and the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek. They were divided among themselves and their weapons were no match for the guns of the Spaniards. He left Spain for the West Indies in 1502 and lived on the island of Hispaniola. There can be little doubt that for hundreds of thousands of years Southern Africa, like eastern Africa, was in the forefront of … From 1710 onwards, the adult slave population outnumbered the adult colonial population by as much as three to one. The Portuguese rulers believed it was their duty to spread the Catholic religion. In 1641, the Dutch seized the slave trade in Angola away from the Portuguese and they were able to control it until 1648 when the Portuguese took back control again. The English East India Company founded trading stations known as factories at Surat (1612) and Madras (1639) (now Chennai) under the authority of the Mogul Empire. While at the end of the colonial period imperial interests still controlled the economies of the region, by the end of the 20th century South Africa had become the dominant economic power. The revolt, lasted from the early 1790s until 1804, when Haiti received its independence. The South Africa War or Second Boer War between 1899-1902, a bitterly fought conflict between Britain and the Afrikaner republics, marked the high point of British imperialism in southern Africa. The punishment of slaves was more strictly controlled. Only two per cent of the Indian population can speak English. Sponsored by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain, the Italian navigator, Christopher Columbus, sailed west across the Atlantic in an effort to reach Asia in 1492. Another anecdote of slave life concerns a slave woman by the name of Dina, who was owned by Roelof Petrus Johannes Campher, a cattle farmer in the district of George, Cape Colony. The most important of these cities were Zanzibar, Kilwa, Mombasa, Mozambique Island and Sofala. To a smaller extent, Germany and Italy had, too. This was to no avail, for, as Manika testified, Reijnier turned on his master and assaulted him, although she did not witness the assault herself. Countries with large empires were respected and admired. From the very first day when a slave was acquired by a settler and given a new name, slaves and owners became involved in a constant struggle to see how much each could impose their will on the other. The settlement at the Cape is a good example of a strategic reason for acquiring a colony. This meant that the rulers of Europe were not directly involved in trade. However, if such violence was allowed to spiral out of control, it could be counterproductive. They arrived in Calicut in 1498. Mine Boy Colonialism and Apartheid in South Africa South Africa, the southernmost country in the African continent, has undergone centuries of political and social transformations stemming from a history of colonial rule that led to both multiculturalism and racial segregation. São Tomé became an important holding station for slaves before they left on the trans-Atlantic voyage to South America. The majority of the population practise traditional African religions or no religion at all. His wife, Manika, was the unfortunate victim of his wrath. It explains when and why colonial states emerged, what they did, how they worked, and who shaped them. Noting discrepancies between the theory and practice of colonial Of the 250 slaves captured, only 170 survived the journey to the Cape. Further south Lourenco Marques was sent to Delagoa Bay to establish trade with the indigenous people living there. Racial mixing occurred at the Cape, but it was never openly accepted like it was in colonies such as Brazil and Mexico. Columbus based his voyage on his calculation of the earth's size (which later turned out to be wrong). The Khoikhoi were at a disadvantage in their struggle to resist the expansion of the Dutch settlement at the Cape. He arrived with five hundred men wearing armour. At best, African populations remained stagnant. The indigenous peoples with whom the Dutch first came into contact, the Khoikhoi, had been settled in the region for at least a thousand years before the Dutch arrived, and were an unwilling labour force. During the period of the Napoleonic Wars in Europe, the British captured the Cape from the Dutch who were allied to Napoleon. For their part, African rulers saw many benefits to be had from maintaining relations with Europeans, and for a considerable period of time they engaged with Europeans voluntarily and on their own terms. The city's present-day cathedral rises over the ruins of an Aztec temple and the palace of the Mexican president stands on the site of the palace of Montezuma. The Spaniards conquered the remaining Aztecs and took over their lands, forcing them to work in gold mines and on Spanish estates. With colonialism, which began in South Africa in 1652, came the Slavery and Forced Labour Model (SAHO, s.a.). The age of colonialism began about 1500, following the European discoveries of a sea route around Africa's southern coast (1488) and of America (1492). Sunday became a day of rest. This means that they were well positioned in times of war. Anglo-Zulu War (1879, in Southern Africa) The British defeat of Zulu King Cetshwayo’s forces marked the end of an era of powerful Zulu kings. The boers were not allowed to enslave the indigenous people of South Africa, so these Khoikhoi servants remained free citizens, but they were seldom paid wages. Vasco NÁºÁ±ez de Balboa, a Spanish merchant, was considered the first of the conquistadors. These were human actions and emotions, not the actions of people who could be defined simply as property. South Africa show cases both sides of the colonialism debate. Sadly, the article of trade in which Europeans showed the greatest interest, and which Africans were prepared to sacrifice, were slaves. In Indonesia, the Dutch enslaved entire populations, ruling them by force and coercing them to produce crops. To read more about the process of ‘Emancipation’ and the Cape after emancipation visit the Iziko online slavery heritage project. Soon after his death in 1707, the empire began to disintegrate. Period: Apr 15, 1488. to Dec 31, 1806. Like the Aztecs in Mexico, they had no immunity against European diseases and they died in their thousands. Gradually these people became absorbed into the Cape community. Colonisation removed people from their land and made them landless. They had a number of children together, including a daughter named Sabina. Livingstone arrived in southern Africa at a time when the region was reeling from major demographic upheaval, violent frontier conflicts and extensive slave-raiding. In slave societies, the institution of slavery touched all aspects of life, as slavery was central to the social, economic and legal institutions. As the colonial trade became more competitive, trading stations grew into colonies of settlement. Within 50 years of the establishment of the Dutch settlement, the indigenous communities near Table Bay, despite heroic struggles on their part, had been dispossessed of their lands and their independent means of existence had come to an end. The Portuguese dominated the trade routes on the coast of India during the sixteenth century. European powers took over land by force and then settled European people on the land. He allowed Cortés to enter the city in order to learn more about the Spaniards and their intentions. The main purpose of these expeditions was to trade slaves. However, European powers were able to exploit their colonies and increase their wealth by using slave labour or very cheap indigenous labour. The colonization of South Africa took place in the early 1800s by the British. May 25, 2013 by Andrew Keet . The story of Reijnier is based on the records of a criminal trial. 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