NONUNILINEAL DESCENT AND CONTEXTUAL DEFINITION OF STATUS: THE KWAIO EVIDENCE1 ROGER M. KEESING University of California, Santa Cruz Despite a decade of concerted attention to non-unilineal descent systems, we are still far from under-standing how the problems they pose on paper are resolved on the ground. Cultural Anthropology, 13th edition. Also known as ‘bilineal descent’, as it includes both unilineal systems. For instance, some societies have non-unilineal descent groups. The lineal principle does not come into operation at any point. Read Online (Free) relies on page scans, which are not currently available to screen readers. Made up of a number of clans considered to be related. 1. Schwimmer, Brian. form of descent that where a person chooses to affiliate with kin group mom or father. Kindreds count all individuals from each parent as relatives. 1995. http://www.umanitoba.ca/faculties/arts/anthropology/tutor/case_studies/turkish/turkterm.html, accessed February 24, 2015. Cognatic dictionary definition cognatic defined YourDictionary. Our online platform, Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) is one of the world’s most extensive multidisciplinary collections of online resources, covering life, health, social and physical sciences, and humanities. Turkish Kin Terms. Descent GroupsWhile unilineal principles of descent are found in almost two-thirds of the world's cultures, other descent principles and corresponding types of groups and social categories occur. Phratries are groups of clans (at least three clans) who are believed to be related by kinship. Kin that are related to us through descent (parent to child) are called consanguine or blood relatives. These patterns determine how we connect with others through descent and marriage. Often, kindreds fall apart when the unifying individual dies. The children are considered to be equally descended through both parents. Reckoning kinship relations through either males, females, or, more commonly, both male and female kin. A preview of the concept of "kinship" as used by anthropologists. American Anthropologist ©2000-2021 ITHAKA. of Contents. Clan. Lineages trace lines of descent to the same ancestor. To access this article, please, Access everything in the JPASS collection, Download up to 10 article PDFs to save and keep, Download up to 120 article PDFs to save and keep. Non Unilineal or Cognatic Systems. Cognatic or Bilateral Descent is non unilineal descent. Cognatic descent is also referred to as non-unilineal descent and there are two types of cognatic descent: bilateral and ambilineal. Kindreds count all individuals from each parent as relatives. 2001. Non-Unilineal Descent: The principle whereby descent is reckoned by means other than exclusively through the father and his male ancestors or the mother and her female ancestors (RF-147; NG-200ff). Unilineal descent group usually comprising ten or more generations, consisting of members who claim a common ancestry even though they cannot trace step by step their exact connection to that ancestor . © 1968 American Anthropological Association Select a purchase Endogamous groups were seen as quite different from exogamous and often associated with non-unilineal descent, e.g. It is a basic system of social organization. In Encyclopedia of World Cultures, Vol. There may be economic ties between moieties. Founded in 1807, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. has been a valued source of information and understanding for more than 200 years, helping people around the world meet their needs and fulfill their aspirations. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. Crapo, Richley. Bilateral descent. Wiley has partnerships with many of the world’s leading societies and publishes over 1,500 peer-reviewed journals and 1,500+ new books annually in print and online, as well as databases, major reference works and laboratory protocols in STMS subjects. Patrilineal Descent and Personal Kindred in Japan1 HARUMI BEFU University of Missouri INTRODUCTION S YSTEMS of descent may be conveniently divided into three major cate- gories, following Davenport (1959) : unilineal, nonunilineal, and bilateral. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, p. 366-370. eties possessing non-unilineal descent. Please make sure to choose a rating. With a personal account, you can read up to 100 articles each month for free. Ambilineality is a cognatic descent system in which individuals may be affiliated either to their father's or mother's group. However, representative groups with unilineal descent from all the geographic areas of the world have not been studied. Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. This thesis considers a system of non-unilineal kinship in a village called Kanga on Mafia Island, off the coast of East Africa. Potentially, an individual can use many ties. Our core businesses produce scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly journals, reference works, books, database services, and advertising; professional books, subscription products, certification and training services and online applications; and education content and services including integrated online teaching and learning resources for undergraduate and graduate students and lifelong learners. There is only one type of non-unilineal descent group, the kindred. Weaker with flexibility. Boston: McGraw Hill Higher Education. Unilineal: Descent is traced through only one parent. Rassumussen, Susan J. http://www.umanitoba.ca/faculties/arts/anthropology/tutor/kinterms/termsys.html, accessed February 24, 2015. http://wikieducator.org/Cultural_Anthropology/Social_Institutions/Kinship. The term Cognatic means akin to both parents.The underlying principle in cognatic or non-unilineal systems is thus the affiliation of an individual with a group of kin who are related to him/her through both his/her parents,irrespective of whether kinship linkages are traced through the mother or the father. A type of un-ilineal descent of ten or more generations, consisting of member who claim common ancestry (cannot be proven) lineage. Wiley is a global provider of content and content-enabled workflow solutions in areas of scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly research; professional development; and education. Tuareg. 2010. This kind of descent group is usually seen where small family groups are more adaptive than large ones and individual mobility is high, e.g., industrial societies. Kindreds count all individuals from each parent as relatives. Clans may segment into subclans or lineages, and genealogical… There is only one type of non-unilineal descent group, the kindred. A matriline is traced through the mother’s family line and partrilines are traced through the father’s. Non-Unilineal Descent Groups. Unilineal Descent or one-line descent is that form of descent in which a relationship is emphasised through one sex or line. These groups do not emphasize kinship links traced exclusively through a single sex and membership is not assigned at birth. Anthropologists oftentimes discuss how many links there are between individuals. The journal advances the Association's mission through publishing articles that add to, integrate, synthesize, and interpret anthropological knowledge; commentaries and essays on issues of importance to the discipline; and reviews of books, films, sound recordings, and exhibits. Ambilines are traced through either the mother’s or father’s line; the choice, which might be made based on friendship or availability of resources, is left open. It is of two types: 1. Here descent is traced through all progenitors, female and male, through both the mother and the father. In this arrangement Ego is a member of two separate and fundamentally distinct groups: a uterine group through his mother (in red) and an agnatic group through his father (in blue). Schwimmer, Brian. This kind of descent group is usually seen where small family groups are more adaptive than large ones and individual mobility is high, e.g., industrial societies. Both patrilineality and matrilineality are types of unilineal descent. Unilineality is a system of determining descent groups in which one belongs to one's father's or mother's line, whereby one's descent is traced either exclusively through male ancestors (patriline), or exclusively through female ancestors (matriline). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. Lavenda Robert H. and Emily A. Schultz. Bonvillain, Nancy. One method of limiting the recognition of kinship is to emphasize the relationships through one parent only. Normally, but not always, the clans are exogamous, or out-marrying: marriage within the clan is forbidden and regarded as a form of incest. option. Synonyms are COGNATIC or (less frequently) BILINEAL DESCENT. For terms and use, please refer to our Terms and Conditions In Peru, social scientists interested in studies of the holistic type make only general ref? Lineal definition, being in the direct line, as a descendant or ancestor, or in a direct line, as descent or succession. Moieties are also linked clans; however, in this case, there are only two clans involved. We also call it non-unilineal descent system. Often, kindreds fall apart when the unifying individual dies. Core Concepts in Cultural Anthropology, 4th edition. Cognatic descent is also referred to as non unilineal descent and there are two types of cognatic. Boston: McGraw Hill Higher Education. Descent groups help to define the pool of potential mates, the group of people who are obligated to help in economic and political issues, and may even dictate which religion is followed, particularly in unilineal descent groups. The main types of the unilineal descent groups are lineages and clans. Kinship Glossary UA Anthropology The University of Alabama. Request Permissions. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. Harris, Marvin and Oran Johnson. JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. Go to Table Double descent – 150 words Descent is of two types – Unilineal, Non-unilineal or cognatic. Kindreds count all individuals from each parent as relatives. There is only one type of non-unilineal descent group, the kindred. 9., Africa and the Middle East. Descent has special influence when rights to succession, inheritance, or residence follow kinship lines. Ember, Carol R. and Melvin Ember. Systematic Kinship Terminologies. 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